The synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of (S)-CPW 399 as a novel, potent and subtype-selective agonist of the AMPA receptor was recently reported. Studies have been extended to investigate its excitotoxic action in primary cultures of mouse cerebellar granule cells. (S)-CPW 399 induced neuronal cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (EC50 similar to70 muM) at 24-h exposure. (S)-CPW-induced neuronal death could be prevented by co-administration with either of the AMPA/kainate selective receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and 6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) or by the 2,3-benzodiazepine, GYKI 53655 (a selective AMPA receptor antagonist); while no protection was afforded by either the NMDA receptor antagonist D,L(+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (APV) or by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel antagonist) when used alone or in combination. Cyclothiazide, which blocks AMPA receptor desensitisation, caused minimal potentiation of (S)-CPW 399-induced neuronal death, supporting accumulating evidence that (S)-CPW 399 is a full AMPA receptor agonist that markedly prevents a receptor desensitised conformation. (S)-AMPA, (S)-willardiine (a naturally-occurring heterocyclic excitatory amino acid) and its halogenated derivative, (S)-5-fluorowillardiine, had no deleterious effect on neuronal viability when used alone but each, in the presence of cyclothiazide, induced a concentration-dependent excitotoxic cell death with a rank order of potency (fluorowillardiine >> AMPA = willardiine). (S)-CPW 399 stimulated an increase in intracellular free-calcium levels ([Ca2+](i)) in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 similar to5 muM) attaining a value of six-fold that of 'resting' cells at maximum stimulation; achieved at similar to100 muM (S)-CPW 399. The (S)-CPW 399-stimulated increase in [Ca2+](i) was virtually abolished by GYKI 53655, NBQX, CNQX and by cobalt ions; markedly inhibited by nifedipine and marginally affected by D-APV. These results suggest that (S)-CPW 399 may be used as a pharmacological tool to aid in the investigation of the role of AMPA receptors in excitotoxicity and their molecular mechanisms of desensitisation.
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|Titolo:||Inherent desensitisation-preventing properties of a novel, subtype-selective AMPA receptor agonist, (S)-CPW399 as a possible explanation for its excitotoxic action in cultured cerebellar granule cells|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|