Nanoplastic debris, resulted from runoff and weathering breakdown of macro- and microplastics, represents an emerging concern for marine ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate disposition and toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) in early development of sea urchin embryos (Paracentrotus lividus). NPs with two different surface charges where chosen, carboxylated (PS-COOH) and amine (PS-NH2) polystyrene, the latter being a less common variant, known to induce cell death in several in vitro cell systems. NPs stability in natural seawater (NSW) was measured while disposition and embryotoxicity were monitored within 48 h of postfertilization (hpf). Modulation of genes involved in cellular stress response (cas8, 14-3-3ε, p-38 MAPK, Abcb1, Abcc5) was investigated. PSCOOH forms microaggregates (PDI > 0.4) in NSW, whereas PS-NH2 results are better dispersed (89 ± 2 nm) initially, though they also aggregated partially with time. Their respectively anionic and cationic nature was confirmed by ζ-potential measurements. No embryotoxicity was observed for PS-COOH up to 50 μg mL−1 whereas PS-NH2 caused severe developmental defects (EC50 3.85 μg mL−1 24 hpf and EC50 2.61 μg mL−1 48 hpf). PS-COOH accumulated inside embryo’s digestive tract while PS-NH2 were more dispersed. Abcb1 gene resulted up-regulated at 48 hpf by PS-COOH whereas PS-NH2 induced cas8 gene at 24 hpf, suggesting an apoptotic pathway. In line with the results obtained with the same PS NPs in several human cell lines, also in sea urchin embryos, differences in surface charges and aggregation in seawater strongly affect their embryotoxicity.
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|Titolo:||Accumulation and embryotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles at early stage of development of sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividus|
|Citazione:||Della Torre, C., Bergami, E., Salvati, A., Faleri, C., Cirino, P., Dawson, K.A., et al. (2014). Accumulation and embryotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles at early stage of development of sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividus. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 48, 12302-12311.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|