Endodontic and periodontal disease are conditions of infectious origin that can lead to tooth loss or develop into systemic hyperinflammation, which may be associated with a wide variety of diseases, including cardiovascular. Endodontic and periodontal treatment often relies on antibiotics. Since new antimicrobial resistances are a major threat, the use of standard antibiotics is not recommended when the infection is only local. Antimicrobial peptides were recently demonstrated to be valid alternatives for dental treatments. The antimicrobial peptide M33D is a tetrabranched peptide active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It has a long life, unusual for peptides, because its branched form provides resistance to proteases. Here the efficacy of M33D and of its analog M33i/l as antibiotics for local use in dentistry was evaluated. M33D and M33i/l were active against reference strains and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Their minimum inhibitory concentration against different strains of dental interest was between 0.4 and 6.0 mu M. Both peptides acted rapidly on bacteria, impairing membrane function. They also disrupted biofilm effectively. Disinfection of the root canal is crucial for endodontic treatments. M33D and M33i/l reduced E. faecalis colonies to one-twentieth in a dentin slices model reproducing root canal irrigation. They both captured and neutralized lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial toxin responsible for inflammation. The release of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha by LPS-stimulated murine macrophages was reduced by both peptides. Human cardiac fibroblasts respond to different insults with the release of proinflammatory cytokines, and consequently, they are considered directly involved in atherogenic cardiovascular processes, including those triggered by infections. The presence of M33D and M33i/l at MIC concentration reduced IL6 release from LPS- stimulated human cardiac fibroblasts, hence proving to be promising in preventing bacteria-induced atherogenesis. The two peptides showed low toxicity to mammalian cells, with an EC50 one order of magnitude higher than the average MIC and low hemolytic activity. The development of antimicrobial peptides for dental irrigations and medication is a very promising new field of research that will provide tools to fight dental infections and their severe consequences, while at the same time protecting standard antibiotics from new outbreaks of antimicrobial resistance. © 2022 by the authors.

Marianantoni, G., Meogrossi, G., Tollapi, E., Rencinai, A., Brunetti, J., Marruganti, C., et al. (2022). Antimicrobial peptides active in in vitro models of endodontic bacterial infections modulate inflammation in human cardiac fibroblasts. PHARMACEUTICS, 14(10), 1-15 [10.3390/pharmaceutics14102081].

Antimicrobial peptides active in in vitro models of endodontic bacterial infections modulate inflammation in human cardiac fibroblasts

Marianantoni, Giulia;Meogrossi, Giada;Tollapi, Eva;Rencinai, Alessandro;Brunetti, Jlenia;Marruganti, Crystal;Gaeta, Carlo;Pini, Alessandro;Bracci, Luisa;Ferrari, Marco;Grandini, Simone;Falciani, Chiara
2022-01-01

Abstract

Endodontic and periodontal disease are conditions of infectious origin that can lead to tooth loss or develop into systemic hyperinflammation, which may be associated with a wide variety of diseases, including cardiovascular. Endodontic and periodontal treatment often relies on antibiotics. Since new antimicrobial resistances are a major threat, the use of standard antibiotics is not recommended when the infection is only local. Antimicrobial peptides were recently demonstrated to be valid alternatives for dental treatments. The antimicrobial peptide M33D is a tetrabranched peptide active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It has a long life, unusual for peptides, because its branched form provides resistance to proteases. Here the efficacy of M33D and of its analog M33i/l as antibiotics for local use in dentistry was evaluated. M33D and M33i/l were active against reference strains and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Their minimum inhibitory concentration against different strains of dental interest was between 0.4 and 6.0 mu M. Both peptides acted rapidly on bacteria, impairing membrane function. They also disrupted biofilm effectively. Disinfection of the root canal is crucial for endodontic treatments. M33D and M33i/l reduced E. faecalis colonies to one-twentieth in a dentin slices model reproducing root canal irrigation. They both captured and neutralized lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial toxin responsible for inflammation. The release of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha by LPS-stimulated murine macrophages was reduced by both peptides. Human cardiac fibroblasts respond to different insults with the release of proinflammatory cytokines, and consequently, they are considered directly involved in atherogenic cardiovascular processes, including those triggered by infections. The presence of M33D and M33i/l at MIC concentration reduced IL6 release from LPS- stimulated human cardiac fibroblasts, hence proving to be promising in preventing bacteria-induced atherogenesis. The two peptides showed low toxicity to mammalian cells, with an EC50 one order of magnitude higher than the average MIC and low hemolytic activity. The development of antimicrobial peptides for dental irrigations and medication is a very promising new field of research that will provide tools to fight dental infections and their severe consequences, while at the same time protecting standard antibiotics from new outbreaks of antimicrobial resistance. © 2022 by the authors.
Marianantoni, G., Meogrossi, G., Tollapi, E., Rencinai, A., Brunetti, J., Marruganti, C., et al. (2022). Antimicrobial peptides active in in vitro models of endodontic bacterial infections modulate inflammation in human cardiac fibroblasts. PHARMACEUTICS, 14(10), 1-15 [10.3390/pharmaceutics14102081].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11365/1219774