Hydrothermal carbonization is considered a powerful technology to convert sewage sludge (SS) into a valuable carbonaceous solid known as hydrochar (HC). Up to now criteria for landfill application of SS and HC are based only on physicochemical properties and levels of pollutant residues. Nevertheless, to ensure their safe environmental applications it is mandatory to develop biosensors which can provide relevant information on their toxic potential for natural ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the suitability of a contact assay using zebrafish embryo/larvae combined with sub-lethal end-points to evaluate the hazard associated with SS and related HC exposure. A suite of biomarkers was also applied on larvae, related to detoxification and oxidative stress as the activity of Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase, the content of reactive oxygen species and the behavioral assay using the DanioVision™ chamber. Legacy priority pollutants were also measured either in SS and HC tested samples and in contact waters. The exposure to SS caused higher lethality compared to HC. No significant changes in the activity of oxidative stress markers was observed upon exposure to both matrices. The behavioral test showed a hypoactivity condition in larvae exposed to both SS and HC with the effects of SS stronger than HC. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of trace elements and halogenated compounds in either SS, HC. Heavy metals were also released in contact waters, while volatile hydrocarbons (C6–C10) and halogenated compounds resulted below LOD (<0.05 μ L−1). Our study highlights the suitability of zebrafish embryotoxicity test, coupled with behavioral traits, as screening tool for assessing potential risks, associated with the landfill application of both SS and HC, for aquatic wildlife.

Della Torre, C., Liberatori, G., Ghilardi, A., Del Giacco, L., Puccini, M., Ferraro, F., et al. (2022). The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larval contact assay combined with biochemical biomarkers and swimming performance in sewage sludge and hydrochar hazard assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 302 [10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119053].

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larval contact assay combined with biochemical biomarkers and swimming performance in sewage sludge and hydrochar hazard assessment

Liberatori, G.;Corsi, I.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Hydrothermal carbonization is considered a powerful technology to convert sewage sludge (SS) into a valuable carbonaceous solid known as hydrochar (HC). Up to now criteria for landfill application of SS and HC are based only on physicochemical properties and levels of pollutant residues. Nevertheless, to ensure their safe environmental applications it is mandatory to develop biosensors which can provide relevant information on their toxic potential for natural ecosystems. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the suitability of a contact assay using zebrafish embryo/larvae combined with sub-lethal end-points to evaluate the hazard associated with SS and related HC exposure. A suite of biomarkers was also applied on larvae, related to detoxification and oxidative stress as the activity of Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase, the content of reactive oxygen species and the behavioral assay using the DanioVision™ chamber. Legacy priority pollutants were also measured either in SS and HC tested samples and in contact waters. The exposure to SS caused higher lethality compared to HC. No significant changes in the activity of oxidative stress markers was observed upon exposure to both matrices. The behavioral test showed a hypoactivity condition in larvae exposed to both SS and HC with the effects of SS stronger than HC. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of trace elements and halogenated compounds in either SS, HC. Heavy metals were also released in contact waters, while volatile hydrocarbons (C6–C10) and halogenated compounds resulted below LOD (<0.05 μ L−1). Our study highlights the suitability of zebrafish embryotoxicity test, coupled with behavioral traits, as screening tool for assessing potential risks, associated with the landfill application of both SS and HC, for aquatic wildlife.
Della Torre, C., Liberatori, G., Ghilardi, A., Del Giacco, L., Puccini, M., Ferraro, F., et al. (2022). The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larval contact assay combined with biochemical biomarkers and swimming performance in sewage sludge and hydrochar hazard assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 302 [10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119053].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11365/1195763