Introduction X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a metabolic disorder in which very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are accumulated in the nervous system and adrenal cortex, impairing their functions. Three main variants are described in males: adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a cerebral form (cALD or cAMN) and Addison's disease only (AD), while for females no classification is used. To evaluate pain and the functional state of afferent fibers, a series of tests was carried out in male and female patients. Methods Chronic pain occurrence and sensory phenotype profile were assessed in 30 patients (20 male: 10 AMN, 1 cAMN, 1 cALD, 8 AD; and 10 female). A set of instruments assessed the intensity, quality and extent of pain, while a battery of quantitative sensory testing (QST) procedures examined the functional status of A beta and A delta fibers. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering with sensory responses input were used to identify distinct clusters. Results Nearly half of the subjects reported pain, with a high prevalence in females and male AMN patients. No sex differences in pain dimensions were found. The sensory responses were heterogeneous, differing among the clinical variants and between genders. Male AMN/cAMN/cALD patients showed the worst impairment. A beta and A delta fibers were affected in males and females, but A beta fibers appeared undamaged in females when tactile sensitivity was tested. Abnormal responses were localized in the lower body district, according to the dying-back pattern of the neuropathy. Cluster analysis showed discrete clusters for each function examined, with well-interpretable sensory and clinical phenotypes. Conclusion The study of pain and of the sensory profile appears to indicate a difference in the mechanisms underlying the AMN/cAMN/cALD and AD clinical forms and in the treatment of the respective generated pain types.
Bachiocco, V., Cappa, M., Petroni, A., Salsano, E., Bizzarri, C., Ceccarelli, I., et al. (2021). Pain Study in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Males and Females. PAIN AND THERAPY.
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|Titolo:||Pain Study in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Males and Females|
|Citazione:||Bachiocco, V., Cappa, M., Petroni, A., Salsano, E., Bizzarri, C., Ceccarelli, I., et al. (2021). Pain Study in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Males and Females. PAIN AND THERAPY.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|