MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in all cell types. Therefore, these tiny noncoding RNA molecules are involved in a wide range of biological processes, exerting functional effects at cellular, tissue, and organ level. In pancreatic islets of Langerhans, including beta-cells, microRNAs are involved in cell differentiation as well as in insulin secretion, while in immune cells they have been shown to play pivotal roles in development, activation, and response to antigens. Indeed, it is not surprising that microRNA alterations can lead to the development of several diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Type 1 diabetes is the result of a selective autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells, characterized by islet inflammation (insulitis), which leads to chronic hyperglycemia. Given the growing importance of microRNA in the pathophysiology of T1D, the aim of this review is to summarize the most recent data on the potential involvement of microRNAs in autoimmune diabetes. Specifically, we will focus on three different aspects: (i) microRNAs as regulators of immune homeostasis in autoimmune diabetes; (ii) microRNA expression in pancreatic islet inflammation; (iii) microRNAs as players in the dialogue between the immune system and pancreatic endocrine cells.
|Titolo:||MicroRNAs: Novel players in the dialogue between pancreatic islets and immune system in autoimmune diabetes|
|Citazione:||Ventriglia, G., Nigi, L., Sebastiani, G., & Dotta, F. (2015). MicroRNAs: Novel players in the dialogue between pancreatic islets and immune system in autoimmune diabetes. BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, 2015, 1-11.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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