Nectar is the most common floral pollinator reward. In dichogamous species, floral nectar production rates can differ between sexual phases. We studied the structure of nectaries located on the stylopodium and nectar production in protandrous umbellifer Angelica sylvestris. Our study species produced nectar in both floral sexual phases. Nectar sugar concentration was low (on average 22 ± 11 %, mean ± SD) and the nectar hexose rich and composed of sucrose, glucose, fructose and a small amount of amino acids, including β-alanine, a non-protein amino acid. Although nectar composition and sugar concentration varied little between floral sexual phases, nectar production showed a threefold reduction during the stigma receptive period. This is in contrast to other studies of Apiaceae that have reported female-biased nectar production, but in the direction predicted by plant sexual selection theory, suggesting that in pollen-unlimited species, floral rewards mainly enhance male reproductive success. The structure of the nectary was similar at the two sexual stages investigated, and composed of a secretory epidermis and several layers of nectariferous and subsecretory parenchyma. The nectary cells were small, had large nuclei, numerous small vacuoles and dense, intensely staining cytoplasm with abundant endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. They contained abundant resin-like material that may potentially act as defence against microbes. Starch was rarely observed in the nectary cells, occurring predominantly at the female stage and mainly in guard and parenchyma cells in close proximity to stomata, and in subsecretory parenchyma. The main route of nectar release in A. sylvestris seems to be via modified stomata.

Stpiczyńska, M., Nepi, M., & Zych, M. (2015). Nectaries and male-biased nectar production in protandrous flowers of a perennial umbellifer Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae). PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION, 301(4), 1099-1113 [10.1007/s00606-014-1152-3].

Nectaries and male-biased nectar production in protandrous flowers of a perennial umbellifer Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae)

NEPI, MASSIMO;
2015

Abstract

Nectar is the most common floral pollinator reward. In dichogamous species, floral nectar production rates can differ between sexual phases. We studied the structure of nectaries located on the stylopodium and nectar production in protandrous umbellifer Angelica sylvestris. Our study species produced nectar in both floral sexual phases. Nectar sugar concentration was low (on average 22 ± 11 %, mean ± SD) and the nectar hexose rich and composed of sucrose, glucose, fructose and a small amount of amino acids, including β-alanine, a non-protein amino acid. Although nectar composition and sugar concentration varied little between floral sexual phases, nectar production showed a threefold reduction during the stigma receptive period. This is in contrast to other studies of Apiaceae that have reported female-biased nectar production, but in the direction predicted by plant sexual selection theory, suggesting that in pollen-unlimited species, floral rewards mainly enhance male reproductive success. The structure of the nectary was similar at the two sexual stages investigated, and composed of a secretory epidermis and several layers of nectariferous and subsecretory parenchyma. The nectary cells were small, had large nuclei, numerous small vacuoles and dense, intensely staining cytoplasm with abundant endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. They contained abundant resin-like material that may potentially act as defence against microbes. Starch was rarely observed in the nectary cells, occurring predominantly at the female stage and mainly in guard and parenchyma cells in close proximity to stomata, and in subsecretory parenchyma. The main route of nectar release in A. sylvestris seems to be via modified stomata.
Stpiczyńska, M., Nepi, M., & Zych, M. (2015). Nectaries and male-biased nectar production in protandrous flowers of a perennial umbellifer Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae). PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION, 301(4), 1099-1113 [10.1007/s00606-014-1152-3].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11365/867242