Pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, nicotine, cocaine and alcohol appear to exert their pleasure providing action via endogenous morphinergic mechanisms. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways, now, in part, via endogenous morphine processes.

Steafano, G.b., Bianchi, E., Guarna, M., Fricchione, G.l., Zhu, W., Cadet, P., et al. (2007). Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: The dopamine-morphine hypothesis. MEDICAL SCIENCE MONITOR, 13(6), RA91-RA102.

Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: The dopamine-morphine hypothesis

BIANCHI, ENRICA;GUARNA, MASSIMO;
2007

Abstract

Pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, nicotine, cocaine and alcohol appear to exert their pleasure providing action via endogenous morphinergic mechanisms. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways, now, in part, via endogenous morphine processes.
Steafano, G.b., Bianchi, E., Guarna, M., Fricchione, G.l., Zhu, W., Cadet, P., et al. (2007). Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: The dopamine-morphine hypothesis. MEDICAL SCIENCE MONITOR, 13(6), RA91-RA102.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: PDF editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 171.7 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
171.7 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11365/598864