Objective: To study the possibility that the penetration of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin into polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) may be associated with some changes in cell reactivity. Design: Superoxide anion and chemiluminescence generation induced by formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) were studied ex vivo in 12 healthy volunteers (mean age, 53.15 ± 16.3 years; mean body weight, 71.23 ± 6.9 kg) at fixed intervals up to 72 hours from the administration of a single oral dose of 250 mg ciprofloxacin. Cytosolic free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in resting and stimulated cells were also evaluated. The dynamic parameters of the effects on PMNs were compared with the kinetic profile of the drug in plasma and in PMNs. Results: Superoxide generation induced by the stimulating agents increased significantly, reaching a peak after 12 hours (+116% [p < 0.001] for fMLP and +66% [p < 0.05] for PAF). Similarly, chemiluminescence production showed a threefold increase in the response to the stimulating agents 12 hours after drug administration (p < 0.001). The increase in [Ca2+]i in stimulated PMNs was significantly potentiated (p < 0.001). The mathematic analysis of the effects of ciprofloxacin showed that time to maximal activity was between 10.4 hours (PAF-dependent [Ca2+]i increase), and 15 hours (fMLP-induced superoxide anion and chemiluminescence production). The ratio of PMNs to plasma ciprofloxacin concentration increased progressively, from 0.5 at 30 minutes to 10.4 after 24 hours. In addition, time to maximal activity and half-life differed in PMNs and in plasma (4.66 versus 1.90 hours and 13.03 versus 7.28 hours, respectively). Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin administration induced a long-lasting enhancement of PMN reactivity to fMLP and PAF. The levels of the drug in the cells were greater and more sustained in the time than those in plasma.
|Titolo:||Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of neutrophil-associated ciprofloxacin in humans.|
|Autori interni:||LAGHI PASINI, FRANCO|
CAPECCHI, PIER LEOPOLDO
|Rivista:||CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|