Recent evidence indicates that during the sleep-waking cycle the forebrain and the cerebellum show parallel changes of their operating capabilities and suggest that cooperation between these two structures plays a different role in the different behavioral states. In particular, a high degree of cerebro-cerebellar cooperation is expected in waking and in paradoxical sleep when enhanced information processing within the cerebellum and the cortex is associated with effective reciprocal cerebro-cerebellar signal transmission. We first speculate that during waking, a state in which a wide range of behaviors is produced by the interaction with the external world, the cerebellum might assist the cortex to develop the neural dynamic patterns which underlie behaviors and that this could be accomplished via cerebellar modulation of both short- and long-range cortical synchronization. In particular, we propose that the cerebellum might favour the automatic triggering of the patterns already acquired, when requested by the context, as well as the acquisition of novel patterns, when found to be of adaptive value, and might even modulate the access to consciousness of brain operations, if producing unpredicted results, by regulating pattern complexity. This proposal is based on the experimental evidence that oscillatory activity may flow within the cerebro-cerebellar loops and that stimulation or lesion of the cerebellar structures affects cortical synchronization. Then we report evidence indicating that during paradoxical sleep, when brain activation occurs in the absence of sensory inflow and motor output, cerebro-cerebellar cooperation mainly favours consolidation of newly acquired waking patterns and/or savings of old patterns from disruption possibly through a non-utilitarian replay process. Finally, we propose that cerebro-cerebellar cooperation weakens during slow wave sleep, given that in this sleep state neuronal activity and excitability decrease both in the cerebellum and in the forebrain and cerebello-cortical signal transmission is at least partially gated at the thalamic level.
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|Titolo:||Hipnic modulation of cerebellar information processing: implications for the cerebro-cerebellar dialogue|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|