Recent developments in knowledge about the interactions between lichens and heavy metals at different levels, from populations to cells and from ecology to molecular biology are reviewed. Sources of heavy metals, mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation and detoxification by lichens are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on ultrastructural changes as well as physiological parameters such as membrane integrity, pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthesis, respiration, contents of ATP, amino acids, ergosterol, ethylene, non-protein thiols, activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of stress proteins.
|Titolo:||Interactions of lichens with heavy metals - A review|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|