Background: The reported mean concentration of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in human blood/erythrocytes varies widely (1 to > 500 μmol/L), as does that of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a lesser extent. We have identified and investigated possible pitfalls in measurement of both GSH and GSSG. Methods: We measured GSH and GSSG using a spectrophotometer with a modification of the GSH recycling method; the same samples were also measured by reversed-Phase HPLC after derivatization of thiols (dithiothreitol was used to reduce disulfides) with monobromobimane. The thiol-bimane adduct was measured by a fluorescence detector. Results: Measured GSH/GSSG concentrations were affected by the following: (a) oxidation of thiols in acidified samples; (b) oxidation after restoring neutral-alka-line pH; (c) oxidation during acid deproteinization; (d) shift in the GSH/GSSG equilibrium because of irreversible blocking of free thiols; and (e) reaction of electrophiles with amino groups. In particular, oxidation during sample deproteinization with acid influenced and produced artifacts (30-150 μmol/L GSSG was produced by this procedure); this phenomenon was directly correlated with the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin, being minimized by both oxygen deprivation and incubation in an atmosphere of 5% carbon monoxide. Conclusions: GSSG is present in healthy human blood at low concentrations (2-6/μmol/L), and most published data on GSSG may be affected by artifacts.

Rossi, R., Milzani, A., DALLE DONNE, I., Giustarini, D., Lusini, L., Colombo, R., et al. (2002). Blood glutathione disulfide: in vivo factor or in vitro artifact?. CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, 48(2), 742-753.

Blood glutathione disulfide: in vivo factor or in vitro artifact?

ROSSI, RANIERI;GIUSTARINI D.;DI SIMPLICIO P.
2002

Abstract

Background: The reported mean concentration of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in human blood/erythrocytes varies widely (1 to > 500 μmol/L), as does that of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a lesser extent. We have identified and investigated possible pitfalls in measurement of both GSH and GSSG. Methods: We measured GSH and GSSG using a spectrophotometer with a modification of the GSH recycling method; the same samples were also measured by reversed-Phase HPLC after derivatization of thiols (dithiothreitol was used to reduce disulfides) with monobromobimane. The thiol-bimane adduct was measured by a fluorescence detector. Results: Measured GSH/GSSG concentrations were affected by the following: (a) oxidation of thiols in acidified samples; (b) oxidation after restoring neutral-alka-line pH; (c) oxidation during acid deproteinization; (d) shift in the GSH/GSSG equilibrium because of irreversible blocking of free thiols; and (e) reaction of electrophiles with amino groups. In particular, oxidation during sample deproteinization with acid influenced and produced artifacts (30-150 μmol/L GSSG was produced by this procedure); this phenomenon was directly correlated with the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin, being minimized by both oxygen deprivation and incubation in an atmosphere of 5% carbon monoxide. Conclusions: GSSG is present in healthy human blood at low concentrations (2-6/μmol/L), and most published data on GSSG may be affected by artifacts.
Rossi, R., Milzani, A., DALLE DONNE, I., Giustarini, D., Lusini, L., Colombo, R., et al. (2002). Blood glutathione disulfide: in vivo factor or in vitro artifact?. CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, 48(2), 742-753.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11365/412306