S-glutathionylation, the reversible formation of mixed disulphides of cysteinyl residues in target proteins with glutathione, occurs under conditions of oxidative stress; this could be a posttranslational mechanism through which protein function is regulated by the cellular redox status. A novel physiological relevance of actin polymerization regulated by glutathionylation of Cys374 has been recently suggested. In the present study we showed that glutathionylated actin (GS-actin) has a decreased capacity to polymerize compared to native actin, filament elongation being the polymerization step actually inhibited. Actin polymerizability recovers completely after dethiolation, indicating that S-glutathionylation does not induce any protein denaturation and is therefore a reversible oxidative modification. The increased exposure of hydrophobic regions of protein surface observed upon S-glutathionylation indicates changes in actin conformation. Structural alterations are confirmed by the increased rate of ATP exchange as well as by the decreased susceptibility to proteolysis of the subtilisin cleavage site between Met47 and Gly48, in the DNase-I-binding loop of the actin subdomain 2. Structural changes in the surface loop 39-51 induced by S-glutathionylation could influence actin polymerization in view of the involvement of the N-terminal portion of this loop in intermonomer interactions, as predicted by the atomic models of F-actin.
|Titolo:||Reversible S-glutathionylation of Cys374 regulates actin filament formation by inducing structural changes in the actin molecule|
|Rivista:||FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY & MEDICINE|
|Citazione:||Dalle Donne, I., Giustarini, D., Rossi, R., Colombo, R., & Milzani, A. (2003). Reversible S-glutathionylation of Cys374 regulates actin filament formation by inducing structural changes in the actin molecule. FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY & MEDICINE, 34(1), 23-32.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|