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|Titolo:||Natriuretic peptides in heart failure: where we are, where we are going.|
|Autori interni:||PALAZZUOLI, ALBERTO|
|Rivista:||INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE|
|Abstract:||Tremendous advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). However, diagnosis still remains difficult, even with a comprehensive physical examination. Symptoms such as dyspnea are non-specific and poorly sensitive indicators for early CHF that can be largely undetected. The discovery of natriuretic peptides (BNP) as diagnostic biomarkers has been one of the most critical advances for heart failure diagnosis. Therefore, both B-type and N-terminal pro-B-type have potential role in the diagnosis of heart failure, as well as in prognostic risk assessment. A single determination of BNP at any time during the progression of chronic HF provides a clinically useful tool for risk stratification. The hypothesis that repeated measurements might carry prognostic information beyond a single measure was confirmed in different settings. One of the main interests is given to the values of repeated determinations for monitoring progression of disease, and for the evaluation of the clinical effects of medical therapy. Nevertheless, despite thousands of papers describing their potential utility, current guidelines have not endorsed the highest level of recommendation for their use, in part, because the application in clinical practice is often limited for the absence of well codified cut off. Recently, European guidelines emphasized the role of natriuretic peptides as potential laboratory markers. In the near future, algorithm building will take into consideration clinical and echocardiographic parameters as well as NP measurements, and this may lead to a correct diagnosis and identification of patients at high risk. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical approaches and future applications of natriuretic peptides in heart failure and coronary disease|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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