A physiologically based simulation model of breathing mechanics was considered in an attempt to interpret and explain the time course of input respiratory resistance during the breathing cycle, observed in recent studies on ventilated patients. The model assumes a flow-dependent Rohrer resistance for the upper extrathoracic airways and volume-dependent resistance and elastance for the intermediate airways. A volume-dependent resistance describes the dissipative pressure loss in the lower airways, and two constant elastances represent lung and chest wall elasticity. Simulated mouth flow and pressure signals obtained in a variety of well-controlled conditions were used to analyze total respiratory resistance and elastance estimated by an on-line algorithm based on a time-varying parameter model. These estimates were compared with those provided by classical estimation algorithms based on time-invariant models with two, three, and four parameters. The results show that the four-parameter model is difficult to identify, while the three-parameter one offers no substantial advantage for estimating input resistance with respect to the more simple two-parameter model. In contrast, the time-varying approach provides good on-line estimates of the simulated end-expiration and end-inspiration resistances. These values provide further information of potential clinical utility, with respect to time-invariant models. For example, the results show that the difference between the end-expiration and end-inspiration resistance increases when obstructions shift from the upper to the lower airways. The similarity of the results obtained with measured and simulated data indicates that, in spite of its simplicity, the simulation model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes in respiratory input resistance, specifically the mechanical properties of intermediate airways.

Avanzolini, G., Barbini, P., Bernardi, F., Cevenini, G., & Gnudi, G. (2001). Role of the mechanical properties of intermediate airways in determining the time course of respiratory resistance. ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 29(7), 575-586 [10.1114/1.1380418].

Role of the mechanical properties of intermediate airways in determining the time course of respiratory resistance

BARBINI, PAOLO;CEVENINI, GABRIELE;
2001

Abstract

A physiologically based simulation model of breathing mechanics was considered in an attempt to interpret and explain the time course of input respiratory resistance during the breathing cycle, observed in recent studies on ventilated patients. The model assumes a flow-dependent Rohrer resistance for the upper extrathoracic airways and volume-dependent resistance and elastance for the intermediate airways. A volume-dependent resistance describes the dissipative pressure loss in the lower airways, and two constant elastances represent lung and chest wall elasticity. Simulated mouth flow and pressure signals obtained in a variety of well-controlled conditions were used to analyze total respiratory resistance and elastance estimated by an on-line algorithm based on a time-varying parameter model. These estimates were compared with those provided by classical estimation algorithms based on time-invariant models with two, three, and four parameters. The results show that the four-parameter model is difficult to identify, while the three-parameter one offers no substantial advantage for estimating input resistance with respect to the more simple two-parameter model. In contrast, the time-varying approach provides good on-line estimates of the simulated end-expiration and end-inspiration resistances. These values provide further information of potential clinical utility, with respect to time-invariant models. For example, the results show that the difference between the end-expiration and end-inspiration resistance increases when obstructions shift from the upper to the lower airways. The similarity of the results obtained with measured and simulated data indicates that, in spite of its simplicity, the simulation model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes in respiratory input resistance, specifically the mechanical properties of intermediate airways.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11365/35506
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