In the field of image watermarking, research has been mainly focused on grey scale image watermarking; the extension to the color case still represents one of the open issues watermarking researchers are facing with. To solve the problem of the correlation among image color bands, a new approach is proposed here which is based on the exploitation of the decorrelation property of the Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT). The KLT is applied to the RGB components of the host image, then watermarking is performed independently in the DFT domain of the KL-transformed bands. In order to preserve watermark invisibility, embedding is achieved by modifying the magnitude of mid-frequency DFT coefficients according to an additive-multiplicative rule. In detection, KL decorrelation is exploited to design an optimum watermark decoder. In particular, basing on the Neyman-Pearson criterion, the watermark presence is revealed by comparing a likelihood function against a threshold. Experimental results are presented proving the robustness of the algorithm against the most common image manipulations, and its superior performance with respect to techniques based on luminance watermarking.
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|Titolo:||Color image watermarking in the Karhunen-Loeve transform domain|
|Rivista:||JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC IMAGING|
|Citazione:||Barni, M., Bartolini, F., DE ROSA, A., & Piva, A. (2002). Color image watermarking in the Karhunen-Loeve transform domain. JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC IMAGING, 11(1), 87-95.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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