The aim of this study was: (1) to assess the energy cost of swimming (Cs, kJ km-1) in a group of male (n=5) and female (n=5) elite swimmers specialised in long-distance competitions; (2) to evaluate the possible effect of a 2-km trial on the absolute value of Cs. Cs was assessed during three consecutive 400-m trials covered in a 50-m pool at increasing speeds (v1, v2, v3). After these experiments the subjects swam a 2-km trial at the 10-km race speed (v2km) after which the three 400-m trials were repeated at the same speed as before (v5=v1, v6=v2, v7=v3). Cs was calculated by dividing the net oxygen uptake at steady state ðV_ O2ssÞ by the corresponding average speed (v, m s1). V_ O2ss was estimated by using back extrapolation technique from breath-to-breath VO2 recorded during the first 30 s of recovery after each test. Cs increased (from 0.69 kJ m1 to 1.27 kJ m1) as a function of v (from 1.29 m s1 to 1.50 m s1), its values being comparable to those measured in elite short distance swimmers at similar speeds. In both groups of subjects the speed maintained during the 2-km trial (v2km) was on the average only 1.2% faster than of v2 and v6 (P>0.05), whereas Cs assessed at the end of the 2-km trial (v2km) turned out to be 21±26% larger than that assessed at v2 and v6 (P<0.05); the average stroke frequency (SF, cycles min1) during the 2-km trial turned to be about 6% (P<0.05) faster than that assessed at v2 and v6. At v5, Cs turned out to be 19±9% (P<0.05) and 22±27% (0.1<P=0.05) larger than at v1 in male and female subjects (respectively). SF was significantly faster (P<0.05, in male subjects) and the distance per stroke (Ds=v/SF) significantly shorter (P<0.05) in female subjects at v5 and v6 than at v1 and v2. These data suggest that the increase of Cs found after the 2-km trial was likely related to a decrease in propelling efficiency, since the latter is related to the distance per stroke.
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|Titolo:||The energy cost of swimming of élite long distance swimmers|
|Rivista:||EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY|
|Citazione:||Zamparo, P., Bonifazi, M., Faina, M., Milan, F., Sardella, F., Schena, F., et al. (2005). The energy cost of swimming of élite long distance swimmers. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 94, 697-704.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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