Two main sedimentary basins can be recognized in southern Somalia, the NE–SW trending Mesozoic-Tertiary Somali coastal basin, and the NNE–SSW Mesozoic Luuq-Mandera basin. The two basins are separated by the Bur region where the Proterozoic- Early Paleozoic Metamorphic basement of southern Somalia outcrops. The investigated area covers part of the Metamorphic basement of southern Somalia and of the Luuq-Mandera basin, although this basement is not described in details in this paper. In the Bur region the basement outcrops discontinuously near inselbergs and monadnocks, which stand out of a blanket of recent sediments. Because of this patchy distribution and the limited areal extent of the outcrops, the structure of the metamorphic basement is difficult to reconstruct. A NW–SE trend of structures prevails and two metamorphic complexes (the Olontole and Diinsor complexes) can be recognized. The Luuq-Mandera basin is a wide NNE–SSW synclinorium, delimited to the SE by the basement high of the Bur region, and to the west by the crystalline basement high of NE Kenya (Northern Frontier district). The extreme thickness of Triassic sediments in the axial part of the basin, and the thinner and younger succession on both sides of the basin suggest that the Luuq-Mandera basin was a subsiding elongated area that was invaded by the sea in the early Mesozoic, during the dismembering of Gondwana. The Jurassic–Cretaceous succession that followed comprises two main cycles of transgression and regression; the carbonate sediments that lie at the bottom pass up section into shales, evaporites and sandstone deposits. Since late Cretaceous, continental contition prevaled, with a long phase of peneplanation, and then a general uplift, which brought about the creation of lake depressions and the capture of the Dawa river, with formation of the present Jubba valley. The main tectonic events in the study area, and throughout SW Somalia, are represented by strike-slip movements along vertical faults in the Sengif and Garbahaarrey belt. Deformation is localized within a narrow belt that extends for more than a 100 km in a NE–SW direction. The near parallelism between the fold axes and the regional orientation of faults indicates a right-lateral movements along faults. The structure of the Garbahaarrey belt consists of an anastomosing fault system that delimits elongated folded blocks, arranged in anticline–syncline structures, with subvertical axial surfaces and fold axes parallel to the main wrench faults. The orientation of folds and the typical ‘‘positive flower structure’’ profile of the anticlines indicate that shortening was perpendicular to the strike of the wrench, i.e. in a SE–NW direction. In the Garbahaarrey belt, strike-slip and shortening, therefore, occurred contemporaneously and led to a relative transpression between the NW and SE blocks. The observed parallelism between fold and fault orientation cannot be explained with a simple rotation of pre-existing fold axes during transpression, but can be regarded as an example of folding and strike-slip movements that occurred simultaneously but independently along frictionless faults. The faults delimiting the anticlines accommodated the strike-slip component of transpression only, whereas the compressive component led to the generation of fold axes parallel to the wrench zone. Results of the field work are summarized in two geological maps of the Gedo, Bakool, and Bay regions (1:250,000) which accompany this report (maps are attached with this issue).
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|Titolo:||'Geology of the Mesozoic - Tertiary sedimentary basins in southwestern Somalia'|
|Citazione:||Ali Kassim, M., Carmignani, L., Conti, P., & Fantozzi, P.L. (2002). 'Geology of the Mesozoic - Tertiary sedimentary basins in southwestern Somalia'. JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES, 34, 3-20.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|