We present here for the first time a 3D reconstruction of in situ axonemal outer dynein arms. This reconstruction has been obtained by electron tomography applied to a series of tilted images collected from metal replicas of rapidly frozen, cryofractured, and metal-replicated sperm axonemes of the cecidomid dipteran Monarthropalpus flavus. This peculiar axonemal model consists of several microtubular laminae that proved to be particularly suitable for this type of analysis. These laminae are sufficiently planar to allow the visualization of many dynein molecules within the same fracture face, allowing us to recover a significant number of equivalent objects and to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction by applying advanced averaging protocols. The 3D model we obtained showed the following interesting structural features: First, each dynein arm has two head domains that are almost parallel and are obliquely oriented with respect to the longitudinal axis of microtubules. The two heads are therefore positioned at different distances from the surface of the A-tubule. Second, each head domain consists of a series of globular subdomains that are positioned on the same plane. Third, a stalk domain originates as a conical region from the proximal head and ends with a small globular domain that contacts the B-tubule. Fourth, the stem region comprises several globular subdomains and presents two distinct points of anchorage to the surface of the A-tubule. Finally, and most importantly, contrary to what has been observed in isolated dynein molecules adsorbed to flat surfaces, the stalk and the stem domains are not in the same plane as the head.
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|Titolo:||Three-dimensional reconstruction of axonemal outer dynein arms in situ by electron tomography.|
|Rivista:||CELL MOTILITY AND THE CYTOSKELETON|
|Citazione:||Lupetti, P., Lanzavecchia, S., Mercati, D., Cantele, F., R., D., & Mencarelli, C. (2005). Three-dimensional reconstruction of axonemal outer dynein arms in situ by electron tomography. CELL MOTILITY AND THE CYTOSKELETON, 62, 69-83.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|