Lake Sentiz and Lake Chozas are two small water bodies in the Province of León (NW Spain). The former is mesotrophic and the latter went from oligotrophic to turbid in 1997, due to introduction of an invasive allochthonous crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Rodríguez et al., 2003, 2005; Marchi et al., 2011a,b). We set out to study health status of the two ecosystems by the joint use of different but correlated ecological indicators, supplementing the values obtained by monitoring campaigns. We examine three scenarios: (1) Lake Sentiz, (2) Lake Chozas before and (3) Lake Chozas after the biological invasion. We evaluate eco-exergy, emergy and eco-exergy–empower ratio, three holistic ecological indicators based on the thermodynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems. When structural changes take place in ecosystems it is recommended to apply holistic thermodynamic indicators as presented in Jørgensen et al. (2010a,b). We propose their joint application for a complete overview of the monetary value of natural capital, because they provide information added to statistical analysis and direct measurement. The aim is to determine which of these indicators best represents the effects of eutrophication and perturbations caused by alien species in the two freshwater systems. The eco-exergy–empower ratio gives the best results, since it clearly indicates lake efficiency in transforming direct and indirect solar energy inputs into organization. The eco-exergy (work capacity) results are used to estimate ecosystem services and quantify the economic value of lake natural capital. Calculation of ecosystem services on an eco-exergy basis provides good indications of monetary gains or losses possible in perturbed systems, including eutrophic or invaded ecosystems. This is not surprising, because work capacities include all possible services offered by ecosystems, not only the services actually used by humans. Eco-exergy and the ecoexergy–empower ratio can be guidelines for the calculation of ecosystem services, although they give only a partial indication of the environmental costs and benefits of a given level of information. The present results suggest political and economic considerations and solutions, and are a useful example for organisations involved in environmental management of pollution and biological invasions by exotic species.
Marchi, M., Jørgensenb, S.E., Bécares, E., Fernández Aláezc, C., Rodríguez, C., Fernández Aláezc, M., et al. (2012). Effects of eutrophication and exotic crayfish on health status of two Spanish lakes: a joint application of ecological indicators. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, 20, 92-100.
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|Titolo:||Effects of eutrophication and exotic crayfish on health status of two Spanish lakes: a joint application of ecological indicators|
|Citazione:||Marchi, M., Jørgensenb, S.E., Bécares, E., Fernández Aláezc, C., Rodríguez, C., Fernández Aláezc, M., et al. (2012). Effects of eutrophication and exotic crayfish on health status of two Spanish lakes: a joint application of ecological indicators. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, 20, 92-100.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|