Dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells with a central role in immunity and tolerance. Under steady-state, DCs are scattered in tissues as resting cells. Upon infection or injury, DCs get activated and acquire the full capacity to prime antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. By secreting different sets of cytokines and chemokines, DCs orchestrate diverse types of immune responses, from a classical proinflammatory to an alternative pro-repair one. DCs are highly heterogeneous, and physiological differences in tissue microenvironments greatly contribute to variations in DC phenotype. Oxygen tension is normally low in some lymphoid areas, including bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic niches; nevertheless, the possible impact of tissue hypoxia on DC physiology has been poorly investigated. We assessed whether DCs are hypoxic in BM and spleen, by staining for hypoxia-inducible-factor-1 alpha subunit (HIF-1 alpha), the master regulator of hypoxia-induced response, and pimonidazole (PIM), a hypoxic marker, and by flow cytometric analysis. Indeed, we observed that mouse DCs have a hypoxic phenotype in spleen and BM, and showed some remarkable differences between DC subsets. Notably, DCs expressing membrane c-kit, the receptor for stem cell factor (SCF), had a higher PIM median fluorescence intensity (MFI) than c-kit(-) DCs, both in the spleen and in the BM. To determine whether SCF (a.k.a. kit ligand) has a role in DC hypoxia, we evaluated molecular pathways activated by SCF in c-kit(+) BM-derived DCs cultured in hypoxic conditions. Gene expression microarrays and gene set enrichment analysis supported the hypothesis that SCF had an impact on hypoxia response and inhibited autophagy-related gene sets. Our results suggest that hypoxic response and autophagy, and their modulation by SCF, can play a role in DC homeostasis at the steady state, in agreement with our previous findings on SCF's role in DC survival.

Barroeta Seijas, A.B., Simonetti, S., Filippi, I., Naldini, A., Favaretto, G., Colombo, T., et al. (2022). Mouse dendritic cells in the steady state: Hypoxia, autophagy, and stem cell factor. CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION [10.1002/cbf.3737].

Mouse dendritic cells in the steady state: Hypoxia, autophagy, and stem cell factor

Filippi, Irene;Naldini, Antonella;
2022

Abstract

Dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells with a central role in immunity and tolerance. Under steady-state, DCs are scattered in tissues as resting cells. Upon infection or injury, DCs get activated and acquire the full capacity to prime antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. By secreting different sets of cytokines and chemokines, DCs orchestrate diverse types of immune responses, from a classical proinflammatory to an alternative pro-repair one. DCs are highly heterogeneous, and physiological differences in tissue microenvironments greatly contribute to variations in DC phenotype. Oxygen tension is normally low in some lymphoid areas, including bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic niches; nevertheless, the possible impact of tissue hypoxia on DC physiology has been poorly investigated. We assessed whether DCs are hypoxic in BM and spleen, by staining for hypoxia-inducible-factor-1 alpha subunit (HIF-1 alpha), the master regulator of hypoxia-induced response, and pimonidazole (PIM), a hypoxic marker, and by flow cytometric analysis. Indeed, we observed that mouse DCs have a hypoxic phenotype in spleen and BM, and showed some remarkable differences between DC subsets. Notably, DCs expressing membrane c-kit, the receptor for stem cell factor (SCF), had a higher PIM median fluorescence intensity (MFI) than c-kit(-) DCs, both in the spleen and in the BM. To determine whether SCF (a.k.a. kit ligand) has a role in DC hypoxia, we evaluated molecular pathways activated by SCF in c-kit(+) BM-derived DCs cultured in hypoxic conditions. Gene expression microarrays and gene set enrichment analysis supported the hypothesis that SCF had an impact on hypoxia response and inhibited autophagy-related gene sets. Our results suggest that hypoxic response and autophagy, and their modulation by SCF, can play a role in DC homeostasis at the steady state, in agreement with our previous findings on SCF's role in DC survival.
Barroeta Seijas, A.B., Simonetti, S., Filippi, I., Naldini, A., Favaretto, G., Colombo, T., et al. (2022). Mouse dendritic cells in the steady state: Hypoxia, autophagy, and stem cell factor. CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION [10.1002/cbf.3737].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11365/1216315