Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, which are the major causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can directly cause functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells. Antioxidants may represent a preventive/therapeutic strategy and reduce the risk of progression of AMD. Among antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is widely studied and has been proposed to have therapeutic benefit in treating AMD by mitigating oxidative damage in RPE. Here, we demonstrate that N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET), a lipophilic cell-permeable cysteine derivative, increases the viability in oxidative stressed RPE cells more efficiently than NAC by reacting directly and more rapidly with oxidizing agents, and that NACET, but not NAC, pretreatment predisposes RPE cells to oxidative stress resistance and increases the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) pool available to act as natural antioxidant defense. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of NACET to increase GSH levels in rats’ eyes after oral administration. In conclusion, even if experiments in AMD animal models are still needed, our data suggest that NACET may play an important role in preventing and treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress, and may represent a valid and more efficient alternative to NAC in therapeutic protocols in which NAC has already shown promising results. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Tosi, G.M., Giustarini, D., Franci, L., Minetti, A., Imperatore, F., Caldi, E., et al. (2021). Superior properties of N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester over n-acetyl cysteine to prevent retinal pigment epithelial cells oxidative damage. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 22(2), 1-12 [10.3390/ijms22020600].

Superior properties of N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester over n-acetyl cysteine to prevent retinal pigment epithelial cells oxidative damage

Tosi G. M.;Giustarini D.;Franci L.;Caldi E.;Fiorenzani P.;Aloisi A. M.;Rossi R.;Orlandini M.;Galvagni F.
2021

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, which are the major causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can directly cause functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells. Antioxidants may represent a preventive/therapeutic strategy and reduce the risk of progression of AMD. Among antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is widely studied and has been proposed to have therapeutic benefit in treating AMD by mitigating oxidative damage in RPE. Here, we demonstrate that N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET), a lipophilic cell-permeable cysteine derivative, increases the viability in oxidative stressed RPE cells more efficiently than NAC by reacting directly and more rapidly with oxidizing agents, and that NACET, but not NAC, pretreatment predisposes RPE cells to oxidative stress resistance and increases the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) pool available to act as natural antioxidant defense. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of NACET to increase GSH levels in rats’ eyes after oral administration. In conclusion, even if experiments in AMD animal models are still needed, our data suggest that NACET may play an important role in preventing and treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress, and may represent a valid and more efficient alternative to NAC in therapeutic protocols in which NAC has already shown promising results. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Tosi, G.M., Giustarini, D., Franci, L., Minetti, A., Imperatore, F., Caldi, E., et al. (2021). Superior properties of N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester over n-acetyl cysteine to prevent retinal pigment epithelial cells oxidative damage. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 22(2), 1-12 [10.3390/ijms22020600].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11365/1127190