Purpose: In the past, a role of thyroid hormones in human evolution has been hypothesized. T3, the metabolically active form, derives from extrathyroidal conversion of T4 by deionidase 2 (D2) enzyme encoded by DIO2 gene. In thyroid-deficient patients, decreased levels of free T3 have been associated with the polymorphism rs225014 A/G in DIO2, which causes the substitution of Threonine with Alanine (p.Thr92Ala) at protein level. Methods: We compared DNA and protein sequences of D2 from archaic human subspecies with those of contemporary humans. Results: Neanderthals and Denisovans displayed only the G allele at the rs225014 polymorphism, which encodes for an Alanine on the amino acid level. These data suggest that these hominines were homozygous for the Ala amino acid. These arcaic humans often lived in condition of iodine deficiency and thus, defective mechanisms of T3 biosynthesis could be life threatining. A reduced D2 activity is likely to cause decreased T3 levels, which could be critical for those individuals. Neanderthals and Denisovans were hunters/gatherers, and their diet was mainly based on the consumption of meat, with a low intake of carbohydrates. The need for circulating T3 is reduced at such alimentary conditions. On the basis of our genome comparisons the A allele, corresponding to Threonine and associated with higher levels of circulating T3 in thyroid-deficient patients, appeared for the first time during evolution in Anatomically Modern Humans during the Upper Pleistocene and has been conserved during the Neolithic age. With the advent of agriculture and herding, individuals carrying A allele might have a higher probability for surviving and reproducing. Thus, the variant was positively selected during the evolution. Conclusion: Here we present an evolutionary perspective for p.Thr92Ala variant of D2 from Neanderthals to Anatomically Modern Humans.
Ricci, C., Kakularam, K.R., Marzocchi, C., Capecchi, G., Riolo, G., Boschin, F., et al. (2020). Thr92Ala polymorphism in the type 2 deiodinase gene: an evolutionary perspective. JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION.
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|Titolo:||Thr92Ala polymorphism in the type 2 deiodinase gene: an evolutionary perspective|
|Citazione:||Ricci, C., Kakularam, K.R., Marzocchi, C., Capecchi, G., Riolo, G., Boschin, F., et al. (2020). Thr92Ala polymorphism in the type 2 deiodinase gene: an evolutionary perspective. JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|