Purpose of Review: This review aims to summarize the role of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) blocking agents in cardiovascular diseases, briefly describing the pathogenetic rationale and the most relevant clinical studies. Recent Findings: IL-1 is a pivotal cytokine of the innate immune system. Anti-IL-1 agents are currently used for the treatment of several autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions. Recently, the role of IL-1 has also emerged in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, two recent randomized controlled trials have shown that the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is effective for the treatment of idiopathic recurrent pericarditis and the IL-1β blocking agent canakinumab is effective in reducing myocardial infarction in people at risk. Interestingly, interfering with IL-1 has proved to be also effective in other cardiovascular manifestations, such as myocarditis, arrhythmias, and heart failure. Summary: Blocking the IL-1 pathway is a possible new therapeutic strategy, potentially leading to innovative therapies in many acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases.
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