Objective: The aim of this work was to assess baseline serum levels of established biomarkers related to inflammation and oxidative stress in samples from alkaptonuric subjects enrolled in SONIA1 (n = 40) and SONIA2 (n = 138) clinical trials (DevelopAKUre project). Methods: Baseline serum levels of Serum Amyloid A (SAA), IL-6, IL-1β TNFα CRP, cathepsin D (CATD), IL-1ra, and MMP-3 were determined through commercial ELISA assays. Chitotriosidase activity was assessed through a fluorimetric method. Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) were determined by spectrophotometry. Thiols, S-thiolated proteins and Protein Thiolation Index (PTI) were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC. Patients’ quality of life was assessed through validated questionnaires. Results: We found that SAA serum levels were significantly increased compared to reference threshold in 57.5% and 86% of SONIA1 and SONIA2 samples, respectively. Similarly, chitotriosidase activity was above the reference threshold in half of SONIA2 samples, whereas CRP levels were increased only in a minority of samples. CATD, IL-1β IL-6, TNFα MMP-3, AOPP, thiols, S-thiolated protein and PTI showed no statistically significant differences from control population. We provided evidence that alkaptonuric patients presenting with significantly higher SAA, chitotriosidase activity and PTI reported more often a decreased quality of life. This suggests that worsening of symptoms in alkaptonuria (AKU) is paralleled by increased inflammation and oxidative stress, which might play a role in disease progression. Conclusions: Monitoring of SAA may be suggested in AKU to evaluate inflammation. Though further evidence is needed, SAA, chitotriosidase activity and PTI might be proposed as disease activity markers in AKU.
|Titolo:||Inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in alkaptonuria: data from the DevelopAKUre project|
SANTUCCI, ANNALISA (Corresponding)
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|