This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100Â mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240Â h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100Â mg/L) and the longest time (240Â h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1Â mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical.
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|Titolo:||Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|