Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies demonstrated that its pathogenesis is related with enhanced oxidative stress (protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation) and alterations in the circulating lipid profile. Alterations of lipid metabolism (including the reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations) induce plasma membrane, bronchial and lung capillary endothelial cell damage in sarcoidosis patients. Dyslipidemia is associated with increased oxidative stress, diminished overall antioxidative protection and increased risk for atherosclerosis. Very recently increased cardiovascular biomarkers (in particular alterations of lipoprotein A and d-dimer concentrations) were observed in sarcoidosis patients, mainly in those with a high risk of atherosclerosis. Chitotriosidase, a biomarker of sarcoidosis activity and macrophage activation, is increased in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with sarcoidosis as well as in patients with atherosclerosis. Lipidomics and other recent methodologies allowed the discovery of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and sarcoidosis pathogenesis, such as serum amyloid A, a biomarker of sarcoidosis activity, involved in innate immune response, inflammation and apolipoprotein metabolism. In this review lipid metabolism alteration and atherosclerosis risk in sarcoidosis patients were discussed in order to contribute to this novel and interesting research topic.
|Titolo:||Increased Risk of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Sarcoidosis|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|