The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence, determinants, and clinical management of systemic hypertension in a large cohort of competitive athletes: 2,040 consecutive athletes (aged 25 ± 6 years, 64% men) underwent clinical evaluation including blood test, electrocardiogram, exercise test, echocardiography, and ophthalmic evaluation. Sixty-five athletes (3%) were identified with hypertension (men = 57; 87%) including 5 with a secondary cause (thyroid dysfunction in 3, renal artery stenosis in 1, and drug induced in 1). The hypertensive athletes had greater left ventricular hypertrophy and showed more often a concentric pattern than normotensive ones. Moreover, they showed a mildly reduced physical performance and were characterized by a higher cardiovascular risk profile compared with normotensive athletes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family hypertension history (odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 3.49; p = 0.008) and body mass index (odds ratio 1.32; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.40; p <0.001) were the strongest predictors of hypertension. Therapeutic intervention included successful lifestyle modification in 57 and required additional pharmacologic treatment in 3 with essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension was treated according to the underlying disorder. After a mean follow-up of 18 ± 6 months, all hypertensive athletes had achieved and maintained optimal control of the blood pressure, without restriction to sport participation. In conclusion, the prevalence of hypertension in athletes is low (3%) and largely related to family history and overweight. In the vast majority of hypertensives, lifestyle modifications were sufficient to achieve an optimal control of blood pressure values.
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|Titolo:||Prevalence and Management of Systemic Hypertension in Athletes|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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