Aim. - SGLT2 inhibitors reduce renal glucose uptake through an insulin-independent mechanism. They also increase glucagon concentration, although the extent to which this is due to a direct effect on pancreatic alpha cells remains unclear. Methods. - In the present work, alpha TC1 cells treated with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (Dapa) were analyzed for glucose transporters, molecular mediators of hormone secretion, glucagon and GLP-1 release, and the effects of somatostatin. Data were validated in murine and human pancreatic islets. Results. - SLC5A2 (the SGLT2-encoding gene) was nearly undetectable in aTC1 cells, not even by a digital PCR technique using different probes. In contrast, SLC5A1 (the SGLT1-encoding gene) was constitutively abundant in aTC1 cells and in islets, and increased with Dapa. This was associated with greater glucagon release, preceded by increased expression of preproglucagon and HNF4 alpha. Looking at the candidate intracellular signalling pathway, reduced PASK and increased AMPK-alpha 2 expression were also detected. GLUT1 and GLUT2, as well as regulators of glucagon release and alpha-cell phenotype (chromogranin A, paired box 6, proprotein convertase 1/2, synaptophysin), were unaffected by Dapa, as were GLP-1 receptor expression and GLP-1 release. Low glucose did not influence the stimulatory effect of Dapa on glucagon release, but was instead almost fully reverted by SLC5A1 silencing. When the effect of Dapa on AMPK and PASK, emerging regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, was tested, upregulated AMPK- alpha 2 appeared to be involved in molecular signalling. Conclusion. - Our study has shown that, in aTC1 cells, Dapa acutely upregulates SGLT1 expression and increases glucagon release through an SGLT1-dependent mechanism, with SGLT2 expression virtually undetectable. These results suggest the involvement of SGLT1 in modulating glucagon increases following SGLT2 inhibition.

Solini, A., Sebastiani, G., Nigi, L., Santini, E., Rossi, C., Dotta, F. (2017). Dapagliflozin modulates glucagon secretion in an SGLT2-independent manner in murine alpha cells. DIABETES & METABOLISM, 43(6), 512-520 [10.1016/j.diabet.2017.04.002].

Dapagliflozin modulates glucagon secretion in an SGLT2-independent manner in murine alpha cells

SEBASTIANI, GUIDO;NIGI, LAURA;DOTTA, FRANCESCO
2017-01-01

Abstract

Aim. - SGLT2 inhibitors reduce renal glucose uptake through an insulin-independent mechanism. They also increase glucagon concentration, although the extent to which this is due to a direct effect on pancreatic alpha cells remains unclear. Methods. - In the present work, alpha TC1 cells treated with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (Dapa) were analyzed for glucose transporters, molecular mediators of hormone secretion, glucagon and GLP-1 release, and the effects of somatostatin. Data were validated in murine and human pancreatic islets. Results. - SLC5A2 (the SGLT2-encoding gene) was nearly undetectable in aTC1 cells, not even by a digital PCR technique using different probes. In contrast, SLC5A1 (the SGLT1-encoding gene) was constitutively abundant in aTC1 cells and in islets, and increased with Dapa. This was associated with greater glucagon release, preceded by increased expression of preproglucagon and HNF4 alpha. Looking at the candidate intracellular signalling pathway, reduced PASK and increased AMPK-alpha 2 expression were also detected. GLUT1 and GLUT2, as well as regulators of glucagon release and alpha-cell phenotype (chromogranin A, paired box 6, proprotein convertase 1/2, synaptophysin), were unaffected by Dapa, as were GLP-1 receptor expression and GLP-1 release. Low glucose did not influence the stimulatory effect of Dapa on glucagon release, but was instead almost fully reverted by SLC5A1 silencing. When the effect of Dapa on AMPK and PASK, emerging regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, was tested, upregulated AMPK- alpha 2 appeared to be involved in molecular signalling. Conclusion. - Our study has shown that, in aTC1 cells, Dapa acutely upregulates SGLT1 expression and increases glucagon release through an SGLT1-dependent mechanism, with SGLT2 expression virtually undetectable. These results suggest the involvement of SGLT1 in modulating glucagon increases following SGLT2 inhibition.
Solini, A., Sebastiani, G., Nigi, L., Santini, E., Rossi, C., Dotta, F. (2017). Dapagliflozin modulates glucagon secretion in an SGLT2-independent manner in murine alpha cells. DIABETES & METABOLISM, 43(6), 512-520 [10.1016/j.diabet.2017.04.002].
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11365/1008226