Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder of genetic origin consisting of closely clustered, abnormally dilated and leaky capillaries (CCM lesions), which occur predominantly in the central nervous system. CCM lesions can be single or multiple and may result in severe clinical symptoms, including focal neurological deficits, seizures, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Early human genetic studies demonstrated that CCM disease is linked to three chromosomal loci and can be inherited as autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and highly variable expressivity, eventually leading to the identification of three disease genes, CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2, and CCM3/PDCD10, which encode for structurally unrelated intracellular proteins that lack catalytic domains. Biochemical, molecular, and cellular studies then showed that these proteins are involved in endothelial cell-cell junction and blood–brain barrier stability maintenance through the regulation of major cellular structures and mechanisms, including endothelial cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, autophagy, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that they act as pleiotropic regulators of cellular homeostasis, and opening novel therapeutic perspectives. Indeed, accumulated evidence in cellular and animal models has eventually revealed that the emerged pleiotropic functions of CCM proteins are mainly due to their ability to modulate redox-sensitive pathways and mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to oxidative stress and inflammation, thus contributing to the preservation of cellular homeostasis and stress defenses. In this introductory review, we present a general overview of 20 years of amazing progress in the identification of genetic culprits and molecular mechanisms underlying CCM disease pathogenesis, and the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

Retta, S.F., Perrelli, A., Trabalzini, L., Finetti, F. (2020). From genes and mechanisms to molecular-targeted therapies: The long climb to the cure of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease. In Methods in Molecular Biology (pp. 3-25). Humana Press Inc. [10.1007/978-1-0716-0640-7_1].

From genes and mechanisms to molecular-targeted therapies: The long climb to the cure of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease

Trabalzini L.;Finetti F.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder of genetic origin consisting of closely clustered, abnormally dilated and leaky capillaries (CCM lesions), which occur predominantly in the central nervous system. CCM lesions can be single or multiple and may result in severe clinical symptoms, including focal neurological deficits, seizures, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Early human genetic studies demonstrated that CCM disease is linked to three chromosomal loci and can be inherited as autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and highly variable expressivity, eventually leading to the identification of three disease genes, CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2, and CCM3/PDCD10, which encode for structurally unrelated intracellular proteins that lack catalytic domains. Biochemical, molecular, and cellular studies then showed that these proteins are involved in endothelial cell-cell junction and blood–brain barrier stability maintenance through the regulation of major cellular structures and mechanisms, including endothelial cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, autophagy, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that they act as pleiotropic regulators of cellular homeostasis, and opening novel therapeutic perspectives. Indeed, accumulated evidence in cellular and animal models has eventually revealed that the emerged pleiotropic functions of CCM proteins are mainly due to their ability to modulate redox-sensitive pathways and mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to oxidative stress and inflammation, thus contributing to the preservation of cellular homeostasis and stress defenses. In this introductory review, we present a general overview of 20 years of amazing progress in the identification of genetic culprits and molecular mechanisms underlying CCM disease pathogenesis, and the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.
978-1-0716-0639-1
978-1-0716-0640-7
Retta, S.F., Perrelli, A., Trabalzini, L., Finetti, F. (2020). From genes and mechanisms to molecular-targeted therapies: The long climb to the cure of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease. In Methods in Molecular Biology (pp. 3-25). Humana Press Inc. [10.1007/978-1-0716-0640-7_1].
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11365/1120558
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo