Several mechanisms of resistance have been identified, underscoring the complex nature of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and the many connections between this pathway and other essential signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Many therapeutic targets of cell signaling and cell cycle pathways have met success with endocrine therapy and remain an ongoing area of investigation. This review focuses on two major pathways that have recently emerged as important opportunities for therapeutic intervention in endocrine resistant breast tumors: PI3K/AKT/mTOR cell signaling and cyclinD1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 cell cycle pathways. Additionally, we highlight individual and combination strategies in current clinical trials that target these pathways and others under investigation for the treatment of ER positive breast cancer.
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|Titolo:||Mechanisms of resistance in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer: overcoming resistance to tamoxifen/aromatase inhibitors|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|